In May, 1791, it was voted that "Orr's Island and Baylie's Island are to have five pounds of the school money for them to keep a school with them the present year, and for no other use." It served as the public school until the 1960s. During that time, the four youngest grades met in one room and grades 4 through 8 met in the other. Each room had a woodstove for heat; one of the older boys was hired to tote wood and keep the rooms warm.

The Schoolhouse is under the care of the Orrs and Bailey Island Volunteer Fire and Rescue. Funds from Schoolhouse rental contribute to this important community service.